Notes: Only extracts from the brochure of the exhibition are presented here.
The borchure divides the artists into three categories:
Pioneers (John Whitney, Harold Cohen, Lilian Schwartz)
Early Settlers (Manfred Mohr, Darcy Gerberg),
Later Settlers (Mark Wilson, Isaac Victor Kerlow, Jeremy Gardiner,
Margot Lovejoy, Haresh Lalvani, Robert Moran, Louie Grenier,
Peter Max, Jerry McDaniel, Micha Riss, Mark Halliday), and
Educators (Roy Blomster, Jeremy Gardiner, Darcy Gerbarg,
Louie Garnier, Issac Kerlow, Haresh Laivani, Margot Lovejoy,
Jerry McDaniel, Lillian Schwartz, Mark Wislon).
Jerry McDaniel appears on the following pages of the brochure:
p. 9, p.11, and p. 24.
Front cover of the exibition brochure.
Inner front cover of the Hurlbut Gallery exibition brochure.
A New Frontier - The Computer and The Visual Arts:
Pioneering, Settling, Education
Pioneers, settlers and educators are part of the development of every new frontier. The exhibit The Computer as an Art Tool at Huributt Gallery in the Greenwich Library March 20 through May 4, will explore these facets of development in an important new frontier: the computer and the visual arts.
Computer-generated art, says artist Darcy Gerbarg,"is dependent on a. technology that was originally developed for scientific purposes. The technonogy Is computer graphics, a development of computer science which had its beginning in aerospace research. This same technology was further developed by the military for surveillance, and by industry for use in designing and manufacturing airplanes, automobiles, etc- Later the textile and printing industries developed computer graphics techniques for their specific applications and now these tools have become available on a broader scale to artists."
(John Whitney, Harold Cohen, Lilian Schwartz)
In a new frontier, a pioneer is one who strikes out into virgin territory to explore and chart the unknown. He braves the elements, hews down tall trees, and beats out a path for others to follow. The still-developing new frontier of the computer In the visual arts has had a number of pioneers. Notable among this group are John Whitney, Harold Cohen and Lillian Schwartz.
(Manfred Mohr, Darcy Gerberg)
Following the pioneers in a new frontier, come settlers. Realizing the potential in the free, new world, they pack their belongings and leave their comfortable homes behind. Bravely they travel long distances , build forts and log cabins, and settle in. Often they live and work in isolation from the rest of the world. Manfred Mohr and Darcy Gerbarg are among the early settlers in the world of computer-generated art.
(Mark Wilson, Isaac Victor Kerlow, Jeremy Gardiner, Margot Lovejoy, Haresh Lalvani, Robert Moran, Louie Grenier, Peter Max, Jerry McDaniel, Micha Riss, Mark Halliday)
Once and outpost has been established more settlers follow. The remaining artists in the Hurlbutt Gallery exhibit turned to the computer between the years 1980-1984.
McDaniel's work with the computer has been a continuation of his graphics.
A professor in the
Art and Design Division at
McDaniel has work in the permanent collections of the National Gallery in Washington, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(Roy Blomster, Jeremy Gardiner, Darcy Gerbarg, Louie Garnier, Issac Kerlow, Haresh Laivani, Margot Lovejoy, Jerry McDaniel, Lillian Schwartz, Mark Wislon)
Important In every new frontier are the educators. Pioneers and early settlers have blazed the trails and braved the elements. They then turn to share their findings as the seeds of civilization begin to take root. They instruct, instill and inspire those who are to follow, paving the way for the establishment of great. cities on their foundations.
In the computer-generated art world, this education is working to
overcome both "computer phobia' and "computer worship."
Statements like, "Computers are so complicated,
Once the would-be computer artist gets past these hurdles, he goes
through an intensely frustrating period in order to learn programming.
A majority of the artists in the Hurlbutt Gallery exhibit are involved
with education and publications. Roy Blomster is a teacher at
Louie Grenier is a teacher at the Center for Media Arts, while Isaac
Kerlow is a visiting Instructor at both Pratt and the
Is It Art?
'Pioneers do indeed get arrows in their backs," Andries van Dam is
quoted as saying in The Universal Machine by Pamela McCorduck, (Van Dam is a
prime mover in an ambitious plan to provide personal computer workstations for
everyone at Brown University,) The same could be said for pioneers and early
settlers in the computer-generated art world. Acceptance of their work as art
has been slow. “The official
Herein lies the problem. "Art is what artists
do,' Nam June Palk, a famous computer-generated video artist has been quoted as
saying, and Carole McCauley writes in her book, Computers and Creativity,
"Creative use of computers will happen only if the people using them are
creative.' Harold Cohen feels that conventional art is a result of an overly
conventional "mindset" to the computer. He stated In a NICOGRAPH 85
International Symposium lecture in
Last year's exhibit, Emerging Expressions - The Artist and the Computer
at The Bronx Museum of the Arts was one of the first of its kind in the
Computer-generated art seems to have been more widely accepted In
Europe. Way back in 1965, three mathematicians organized the first exhibition
of computer-generated visual art at the Studio Gallery of the University of Stuttgart, Germany, and in 1968, the
As the costs of computers come down and its technology is developed and further refined, the computer-generated art frontier of today will become the more familiar, settled city of tomorrow.
In the 1960's. the cost of computer technology was so exorbitant and its use so complicated that collaboration between artist and some scientific institution was mandatory. On top of this, the work was very tedious. When Lillian Schwartz first worked with a computer, she worked blind, with no monitor or screen at all. The turn around time before she got a plotted graphic and was able to see the results of all of the tedious keyboard work, was two or three days. In 1986, with pre-programmed, sophisticated paint systems, an artist can create complex artworks on their monitors in a matter of minutes by moving a special pen across a drawing Dad. Getting the computer-generated image from the screen to a "hard copy" form is still something of a problem. The image can be put directly onto video, or photographed (cibachrome) or plotted with drawing pens onto paper or canvas. In Mark Wilson's colorful drawings, each color is plotted separately, a process that takes time and patience.
Like the world of photography, in which many people own and operate cameras but only some use them for fine art, so producing art on computers will lose Its mystique as more and more people acquire 'user friendly" personal computers with paint systems, mouses, joy sticks and Kowala pads. Then the computer's true value as an art tool will be tested. -What do artists hope to gain by dropping their paintbrushes and other traditional image-making devices and sitting down in front of a computer?" Dale Peterson asks in his book Genesis //. "Precision, iteration (repetition) transformation and serendipity," he answers.
Manfred Mohr lauds the computer for its "incorruptible precision" and Mark Wilson says it's a new way of seeing. "Computer graphics have shown us things we could not see before," he observes. Pamela McCorduck exclaims: "Computer scientists have come face to face with the unyielding barrier of the unknowable, the infinity of the symbolic universe, and a humbling experience it is."
As Harold Cohen pushes further and further, his Inquiry into what art is and the defined rules for picture making, we see the computer art field take on a deep dimension. His drawing program has given us a step-by-step record of his Inquiry into the understanding of the very structure of images that refer to some aspect of the world. Stephen Wilson in Using Computers to Create Art sums it up as follows:
Artists have historically served in the time-honored role of culture reflectors and interpreters. They have used their status and sensibilities as 'outsiders' to help the culture digest changes. They have helped their audiences to look beneath the surface and connect the unconnected. Certainly the computer-generated ripples of cultural change washing over the contemporary world cry out for the searching eye and hand of the artist. When artists make computers part of their subject matter, they act as a tonic for the cultural development process."
'I paint directly with light, colored light,' says Darcy Gerbarg. What could more clearly illustrate the wonder and potential of the grand new frontier of The Computer As An Art Tool?
THE COMPUTER AS AN ART TOOL
CONTRIBUTING ARTISTS' BIOGRAPHIES
JERRY MCDANIEL’s bio in the section of the brochure entitled: THE COMPUTER AS AN ART TOOL CONTRIBUTING ARTISTS' BIOGRAPHIES